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3.1  Thematic interconnections of roots

3.1.1  Flora, fauna and earth

Words associated with flora often share initial k-, and w as the first or second sonorant:

Words associated with life and existence often share initial h-:

Words associated with earth and soil often share initial k-:

It has been therefore suggested that the words for earth and soil are the more basic ones and set the frame for further modifications, with k > kw denoting things that grow on the ground, and k > kh > h|χ denoting beings that live on the ground. Note especially:

This appears to be a double-modification, since leaves and flowers also pass through a life cycle.

The word ka can also be used in the sense of ’base, substratum’, describing the idea of something stretched out lying and supporting from below. In this usage it is a mass noun or a state and the conjuction kimmeká ’because’ (lit. ’solid ground’) is derived from it. In a compound with ba ’leg, pillar’, kabá, kásseba becomes a general word ’foundation, fundament, grounds, reason’ (see 3.5).

3.1.2  Sky, wind and directions

Words associated with wind or air often share initial ϕ-:

As do words associated with light or vision:

Words for spatial position share initial p- or b- and a liquid:

They all have signum (2.1.3):

The corresponding directions lack the final sonorant and may additionally show a-infixion (1.1.3):

Words associated with the sky share initial b-:

The cardinal directions are:

The word for ’weather’ is bamnekár, lit. ’sky-luck’, with bamnokára ’good weather’, bamnikáru ’bad weather’.

3.1.3  Water

There are three different roots for ’water’ in Talmit: √pal denoting water as a substance, √plakh standing for cold/warm water (pláχu/pláχa) and √podj denoting running water. In general, water-related roots have p- initially (but never ϕ- or b-) and often share l or j as one of the sonants:

Possibly related is √pobl, the root for speech in the sense of a flow of words rather than transmitting information (which is √tal or √tapl). Hence póble may mean ’speech, way of talking, articulation’ depending on the context, pobletetébne ’phonology’, pólba ’spoken word’, pólbamai ’sentence, phrase’, but táple ’tale, report’, tal ’word as a name, description, label’, tálpa is a sentence-ending particle expressing hearsay (2.5.1).

Another thematic sound combination associated with water is m-l and an initial velar:

The latter looks suspiciously close to hlúmi ’salt’ (√khlu). In any case it is apparent that the pl-roots stand for fresh, clear water and the ml-roots for salty or impure water, water as an instrument. Compare also pallúmas ’lake’. A word which is in between these classifications, seems to be plúima ’tear’.

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