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2.5  Auxiliaries and particles

2.5.1  Auxiliaries

Auxiliary states are used for various purposes in Talmit – to act as modals, to express evidentiality or the aspect of an action.

  1. Some auxiliaries grammatically behave like states. They can receive stative nójo and a preceding verb either takes the compound or attributive form:

    These states form the head of the corresponding phrase and take tense endings. In particular, de is commonly used to express the present/past/future progressive tense (or imperfective aspect):

    Hence Aχagendίi-nójo ’[I] was eating’ and so on.

    Déo (the future of de) with the destinative mére is used to express aim or purpose:

  2. Auxiliary states behaving like sentence-ending particles are understood to modify a whole sentence rather than a verb or a state. They do not take nójo and the preceding verb is in the conclusive form. They often denote evidentiality:

2.5.2  Conjunctions

Some conjunctions are states grammaticalized into sentence-ending particles:

Others are actual particles or suffixes:

If the suffix -(s)se is attached to the postpositions jésse, nótto, nóllo, nójo, móno/mána, mére, méza, láha it leads to jesésse, nóxe, nólze, nójse, mónze/mánze, mérze, mésse, láxe.

Conditional sentences use angá as a sentence-ending particle in the protasis, and a new numerical particle for each apodosis: ilgá, ezgá, orgá etc., which is transparently ’step one’, ’step two’ and so on (√ga ’to go, move’, at ’1’, il ’2’, es ’3’, or ’4’). One would have expected *gáhat, *ga(h)il, but the order is probably reversed to have an open final vowel, which is often prolonged in casual speech when someone needs more time to think about the apodosis. The protasis can be framed by an initial particle éo, e.g.:

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