last update: 2019-08-14

Natural languages

language entry translation phonetic
Akkadiankamkammatu1. metal ringKUPringBlack
Akkadiankamkammatu2. round moon, full moonKUPlumpBlack
Akkadiankapāputo curve, bowKUPbendingBlack
Akkadiankapāṣuto bend back, distort (of part of body, snake, horn of moon, part of liver)KUPbendingBlack
Akkadiankippatu(m)circle, hoop, ringKUPringBlack
Akkadiankippatu(m)tendril, twining stem of vineKUPbendingBlack
Akkadiankippatu(m)handle, grip of vessel, musical instrumentKUPhookBlack
Akkadiankippu(m)loop, trapKUPringBlack
Akkadiankuppucistern, water sourceKUPvesselBlack
Akkadiankuppupu(m)very bentKUPbendingBlack
Akkadiankupputtumeasuring vesselKUPvesselBlack
Akkadiankupputuconglomerated (of parts of liver)KUPlumpBlack
Akkadiangamlubent stick (as projectile), throwing stickKORBhookBlack
Akkadiankapālu(m)to roll up, wind up, intertwine each other (of snakes, birds etc.)KORBbendingBlack
Akkadiankappultumwrapping (as purpose of textile)KORBbendingBlack
Akkadiankarmu(m)heap, moundKORBlumpBlack
Akkadiankiplutwisting, twineKORBbendingBlack
Akkadiankirbānulump (of earth)KORBlumpPSD
Akkadianqablu(m)1. hips, waist 2. belt, girdleKORBringBlack
Akkadianqabru(m)grave, tombKORBcavityBlack
Akkadianqebēru(m)1. bury 2. wrap up (as though for burial) 3. be rolled up, convoluted (?)KORBbendingBlack
Old Englishcrump, crumbcrookedKORBbendingKlein
Aramaicġarrāfanoria (wheel-like machine for lifting water)KORBring
Avestankamarāgirdle, beltKORBringFrisk
Welshcopatop, summit, headKUPhead
Dutchklamp < Old Dutch *clampeclampKORBhookKlein
Dutchkopertrading vesselKORBvesselKlein
Englishcobround object, stone of a fruit, testicle, roundish heap, lump, haystack, knot of hair, lump of coal, dumplingKUPlumpOED
Englishcobhead of a herring, seeding head of wheat, clover etc.KUPheadOED
Englishcobgreat man, big man, leading man, wealthy man, miser, huge, lumpish personKUPswellingOED
Englishcoif < Old French coiffecap, headdressKUPheadgearKlein
Englishcoop < Latin cūpabasketKUPvesselKlein
Englishcub < Old Norse kobbithe young of the fox, bear, lion, tiger etc.KUPcubKlein
Englishgaff < Middle French gaffefishing hookKUPhookKlein
Englishgob < Old French gobelump of slimy substanceKUPlumpKlein
Englishgobbet < Old French gobetpiece of flesh, lump of food (archaic)KUPlumpKlein
Englishheap < PIE *keu-p-large, disordered pile of thingsKUPlumpKlein
Englishhivenest for beesKUPlump
Englishhoopcircular bandKUPring
Englishcalf < PIE *gʷelbʰ-/*gʷolbʰ-calf, young of a cow, etc.KORBcubKlein
Englishclamp < Old Dutch *clampeclamp, device for fasteningKORBhookKlein
Englishcobble < English cobcobble, rounded stoneKORBlumpKlein
Englishcoble < Latin caupulusa kind of fishing boatKORBvesselKlein
Englishcramp < crampe, crampbent piece of ironKORBbendingKlein
Englishcreepmove the body near or along the ground as a reptile or insect doeKORBbending
Englishcrib1. bed for a baby 2. box with food for farm animalsKORBvessel
Englishcrimpto wrinkleKORBbending
Englishcripplelame or partly disabled person or animal; original sense 'bent, twisted'KORBbendingKlein
Englishcrumple < Old English crump, crumbto curl up, become wrinkled or bentKORBbendingKlein
Englishgrave < PIE *grebʰ-/*grobʰ-grave, tombKORBcavityKlein
Englishgroove < PIE *grebʰ-/*grobʰ-furrow, trench, channelKORBcavityKlein
Englishhamper < Old French hanapierlarge basketKORBvesselKlein
Englishhanaper < Old French hanapiercase for holding documentsKORBvesselKlein
cawellfish basketKORBvesselMcBain
Finnishhuppuhoof, cowlKUPheadgear
Finnishkaivaato dig, excavateKUPcavity
Finnishkuhmuknot, swellingKUPswelling
Finnishkuoppahole, pitKUPcavity
Finnishkyhmyswelling, protuberanceKUPswelling
Finnishkimpaleslab, chunk, clod, lump, large irregular pieceKORBlump
Finnishklimppigob, clump, clotKORBlump
Finnishkumarabent, bowedKORBbending
Frenchcoiffe < Latin cofia (cofea)headdress, capKUPheadgearKlein
Frenchcoupe < Latin cuppacupKUPvessel
Frenchcuve < Latin cūpavatKUPvessel
Frenchgobe < Old French gobefattening ball (for poultry), poisoned ball (for a dog)KUPlumpKlein
Frenchcourberto bendKORBbending
Middle Frenchgaffelong pole with an attached fishhookKUPhookDMF
Old Frenchgobemouthful, lumpKUPlumpKlein
Old Frenchhanap < Frankish *hnapgobletKUPvesselKlein
Old Frenchhanapier < Old French hanapbasket for holding a gobletKORBvesselKlein
Georgiankamarigirdle, beltKORBring
GermanHaupt < PIE *kapwet-/kaput-head (arch.)KUPheadKluge, Vaan
GermanHüfte < PIE *keu-hipKUPbendingKluge
GermanKiepedosser, pannier (high basket carried on the back)KUPvessel
GermanKiepestraw hat, hoodKUPheadgear
GermanKnubbebud, bulge, swellingKUPswelling
GermanKopf < Latin cuppaheadKUPheadKluge
GermanKufe < Latin cūpavat, tub (especially for transporting salt)KUPvesselKluge
GermanGraben < PIE *gʰrebʰ-ditchKORBcavityKluge
GermanKalb < PIE *gʷelbʰ-/*gʷolbʰ-calfKORBcubKlein
GermanKerbedent, grooveKORBcavity
GermanKolbenvarious club-like or cylindric objects: corncob, spadix, butt of a rifle, club or mace proper; pistonKORBlump
GermanKolbenlaboratory flaskKORBvessel
GermanKorb < Latin corbisbasketKORBvesselKluge
GermanKropf < Proto-Germanic *kruppa-crop, craw (outwards expanded portion of the alimentary tract in birds)KORBswellingKluge
GermanKübel < Latin cūpellatub, bucketKORBvesselKluge
GermanKuppel < Italian cupoladomeKORBdomeKluge
GermanKürbedosser, pannier (high basket carried on the back) (Bavarian dialect)KORBvessel
cabhuil < cawellconical basket for catching fishKORBvesselMcBain
Old High Germankramphbent, crookedKORBbendingKluge
Greek (Ancient)κάλυμμαgraveKUPcavityLiddell
Greek (Ancient)κάλυμμαhead-covering, hood, veil, covering put on the face of the deadKUPheadgearLiddell
Greek (Ancient)κάμπτω1. to bend, curve 2. to turn or guide a horse or chariot round the turning-post 3. to be bowed downKUPbendingLiddell
Greek (Ancient)χαβόςcurvedKUPbendingVaan
Greek (Ancient)χαμόςcurvedKUPbendingVaan
Greek (Ancient)κυβιστάωtumble head foremostKUProtationLiddell
Greek (Ancient)κύβος1. cubical die, 2. vertebra, 3. block of stone, 4. piece of salt fish, 5. kind of cubic cake, 6. hollow above the hips of cattle, 7. part of an irrigation-machineKUPhookLiddell
Greek (Ancient)κῦμαanything swollen (as if pregnant): the swell of the sea, a wave, billow; the foetus in the womb, embryo etc.KUPswellingLiddell
Greek (Ancient)κύμβη1. hollow of a vessel, drinking cup, bowl 2. boat 3. knapsack, walletKUPvesselLiddell
Greek (Ancient)κύμβηheadKUPheadLiddell
Greek (Ancient)κύπη1. a kind of ship 2. a kind of hutKUPvesselLiddell
Greek (Ancient)κύπηgap, holeKUPcavityVaan
Greek (Ancient)γλάφῠhollow, cavernKORBcavityLiddell
Greek (Ancient)καμάραanything with an arched cover: covered carriage; covered boat or barge; vaulted chamber; burial chamber; vault of heaven; vaulted ceilingKORBdomeLiddell
Greek (Ancient)κελεβήcup, jar, panKORBvesselLiddell
Greek (Ancient)κεφαλή < PIE *gʰebʰ(e)l-headKORBheadLiddell, Frisk
Greek (Ancient)κλίμα inclination, slopeKORBbendingLiddell
Greek (Ancient)κύφελλαhollows of the earsKORBcavityLiddell
Greek (Ancient)κύφελλαclouds of mist, arrowsKORBlumpLiddell
kipákippah, traditional Jewish hatKUPheadgear
kipádome (liteal meaning of kippah)KUPdome
Hindikhopri < Sanskrit kharparaskullKORBheadKlein
Hungariangamóhook, crook, branchesKUPhookBenkő
Hungariangamó1. having windgalls (swellings on the joints of horses) (1802), 2. big, unshapely foot (1885)KUPswellingBenkő
Hungarianhimpókwindgall (swelling on the joints of a horse)KUPswelling
Hungariankoporsó < Chagatai koburčakcoffinKORBvesselVasmer
Italiangabbiabasket for fowls, coopKUPvessel
Italiancaraffa < Spanish garaffadecanter, carafeKORBvesselKluge
Italiancupola < Latin cūpula (cuppula)domeKORBdomeKluge
Japanesekabanbag, basket, briefcaseKUPvessel
Japanesekabutohelmet, headpieceKUPheadgear
Japanesekobubump, lumpKUPlump
Japanesekobuprotuberance, swellingKUPswelling
Japanesekubineck, headKUPhead
Japanesekubomihollow, cavity, dent, depressionKUPcavity
Japanesekurumuwrap upKORBbending
Koreankoptabe windingKUPbendingSohn
Koreankwuptabe bentKUPbendingSohn
Latincappacape, hooded cloakKUPheadgearKluge
Latincaput < PIE *kap-ut-headKUPheadVaan
Latincavus < PIE *ḱouH-ó-hollow, excavated, concave, deep (of water)KUPcavityVaan
Latincofia (cofea)capKUPheadgearKlein
Latincubituselbow, forearmKUPbendingVaan
Latingibbus < PIE *geibʰ-?hump, hunchbackedKUPswellingVaan
Latinhāmushook, fish-hookKUPhookVaan
Latincalvāria < PIE *klHe-/klHou̯o-skullKORBheadVaan
Latincamuruscurved or arched inwards; having such hornsKORBbendingOLD
Latincaupulusa kind of small shipKORBvesselKlein
Latincaverna < Latin cavuscave, holeKORBcavity
Latincerebrumbrain, skullKORBvessel
Latincumulus < PIE *ḱuh₁-mo-heap, pileKORBlumpVaan
Latincūpella < Latin cūpasmall vat or caskKORBvessel
Latincūpula (cuppula) < Latin cūpa (cuppa)small, crooked handleKORBhook
Latincūpula (cuppula) < Latin cūpa (cuppa)little tub, caskKORBvessel
Latincūpula (cuppula) < Latin cūpa (cuppa)small burying vaultKORBdome
Latincurvus < PIE *kuru̯o-?bent, crooked, curvedKORBbendingVaan
Latinglēba (glaeba) < PIE *gleb(ʰ)-? *glob(ʰ)-?lump of earth, clodKORBlumpVaan
Latinglobusround body, round sphere, globeKORBring
Latinglomus < PIE *glem-o/es-ball-shaped massKORBlumpKlein, Vaan
Latingrūmus < PIE *h₂ǵr-ōm-o-heap of earth, hillockKORBlumpVaan
Malayalamkoppara < Hindi khopricoconutKORBlumpKlein
crampe, crampbent piece of ironKORBbendingKlein
Old Norsekobbiyoung sealKUPcubVigfusson
Old JapanesekabuheadKUPheadFrellesvig
Persiangonbaddome, vault, archKUPdome
Persiankamarwaist, loinsKORBringKlein
Polishklomb < English clumpflowerbedKORBlumpVasmer
Quechuakump’ucrooked, hunchbackedKUPswelling
Quechuaq’iwiarc, bow, curve; crooked, curvedKUPbending
Russianкабушка (кабушек)small lump (especially of curd or cheese)KUPlumpDahl
Russianкапburl (deformed growth on a tree)KUPswelling
Russianкоба (кова)stump, snag; pile for fastening boats; hummockKUPlumpDahl
Russianкобенитьсяto bend, writhe, squirm, wriggleKUPbending
Russianкобеняк1. bag, pouch 2. awkward, clumsy personKUPlumpDahl
Russianкомlump, ballKUPlump
Russianкопатьto digKUPcavity
Russianкопнаhaycock; something having the shape of a haycock (in particular a tuft of hair)KUPlump
Russianковчег1. box, vessel 2. Ark of the Covenant, Noah's ArkKUPvesselVasmer
Russianкубитьсяto gather into a pile, lump, crowdKUPlumpDahl
Russianкубок < Russian кубcup, goblet, bowlKUPvesselVasmer
Russianглыбаbig lumpKORBlump
Russianкарапузpudgy, chubby childKORBswelling
Russianкаравайlarge round bread; round cake; boulder, roundish underwater stoneKORBlumpDahl
Russianклубpuff, roundish formation of smoke, dust, mistKORBlump
Russianколобball, round breadKORBlump
Russianколпак < Turkish kalpakhigh-crowned cap, cowlKORBheadgearVasmer
Russianкоробbasket, boxKORBvessel
Russianкоробья1. basket, chest, box 2. measure of grainKORBvessel
Russianковалокchunk, slice (esp. of meat)KORBlumpDahl
Russianковеркатьto bend, distortKORBbending
Russianкубарьspinning topKORBrotation
Russianкубель1. wooden toy sphere 2. wallet, knapsack out of birch barkKORBlumpDahl
Russianкувырокsomersault, roll, tumbleKORBrotation
Sanskritkumbhájar, pitcher, water-pot, ewer, small water-jarKUPvesselLiddell, Monier-Williams
Sanskritkumbháthe frontal globe or prominence on the upper part of the forehead of an elephantKUPswellingMonier-Williams
Sanskritkapālaskull, cranium, skull-boneKORBheadMonier-Williams
Sanskritkapālacup, jar, dishKORBvesselMonier-Williams
Sanskritkharpara1. thief, rogue, cheat 2. skull 3. a beggar's bowl or dish, 4. umbrella or parasol 5. a kind of mineral substanceKORBheadMonier-Williams
Spanishgarrafa < Aramaic ġarrāfadecanter, carafeKORBvesselKluge
Sumeriangamshepherd's crook, bent stick; haft, hiltKUPhookPSD
Sumeriankibidbackside, assKUPswellingPSD
Sumeriangabil1. basket 2. main beam of a chariotKORBvesselPSD
Sumeriangurumto bend, curve, wrap around; to bow; to roll up; to curb, restrain; to watch overKORBbendingPSD
Turkishkabarto swellKORBswelling
Turkishkalpakhigh-crowned capKORBheadgear
Ukranianкаблукcurve, bend of a roadKORBbendingVasmer

Eldarin languages

language entry translation phonetic
Goldogrincam < KAVA-bent, bowed; submissive, humbleKUPbendingGL:25
Goldogrincam(m)a- < KAVA-to stoop, bend, bow, cowerKUPbendingGL:25
Goldogrincaug < KAẆA- 'stoop'humpbackKUPswellingGL:25
Goldogrincaug < KAVA-humped, bulgingKUPswellingGL:25
Goldogrincaug < KAVA-bentKUPbendingGL:25
Goldogrin{cav-} < KAVA-to bend, make stoopKUPbendingGL:25
Goldogrincub < *KUPU-hollowKUPcavityGL:27
Goldogrin{cûf} < *KUPU-hollowKUPcavityGL:27
Goldogrincûm < KUMU- 'heap up'mound, especially grave, burial moundKUPlumpGL:27
Goldogrincuptha- < *KUVU-to bend (tr.)KUPbendingGL:27
Goldogrincuvon < *KUVU-bowed, bent, concaveKUPbendingGL:27
Goldogringob < *KOPO-hollow of handKUPcavityGL:40
Goldogrincorm < *KORO-{globe}, a ring or circle, a discKORBringGL:26
Goldogrincorob < *KORO-skullKORBheadGL:26
Noldorincumb, cum < KUB-mound, heapKUPlumpLR:365
Noldoringamp < GAP-hook, clawKUPhookLR:357
Noldorincalf < KALPA-water-vesselKORBvesselLR:362
Noldorincrib- < krikw-to bendKORBbendingPE13:141
Q(u)enya{kamba} < KAVA- < *KABA-bend [sic], crookedKUPbendingGL:25
Q(u)enyakambe < KAB- 'hollow'hollow (of hand)KUPcavityLR:361
Q(u)enyakambo < KAVA- < *KABA-cellar, cave, vaultKUPdomeQL:45
Q(u)enyakauka < KAẆA- 'stoop'crooked, bent, bowedKUPbendingQL:45, GL:25
Q(u)enyakauka < KAẆA- 'stoop'humpedKUPswellingQL:45
Q(u)enyakauko (-u) < KAẆA- 'stoop'humpbackKUPswellingGL:25
Q(u)enyakauta- < *KAW-to bendKUPbendingPE16:100
Q(u)enyakava- < KAVA- < *KABA-to digKUPcavityQL:45
Q(u)enyakawin < KAẆA- 'stoop'I bow, make obeisanceKUPbendingQL:45
Q(u)enyakōma < KOMO-ballKUPringQL:47
Q(u)enyakōmea < KOMO-globe-shaped, roundKUPringQL:47
Q(u)enyakop- < *KOPO-hollow of handKUPcavityGL:40
Q(u)enya-kumba < *KUB-belliedKUPswellingSD:68,72
Q(u)enyakumbe < KUB-mound, heapKUPlumpLR:365
Q(u)enyakumbe < KUMU- 'heap up'pile, heap, load, burdenKUPlumpQL:49
Q(u)enyakúme < KUMU- 'heap up'pile, heap, load, burdenKUPlumpQL:49
Q(u)enyakumpo < KUMU- 'heap up'pileKUPlumpQL:49
Q(u)enyakūne < KUVU- 'bend, bow'crescent, bowKUPbendingQL:49
Q(u)enyakupta- < KUPU- 'hump'to hump up, look humpy, etc.KUPswellingQL:49
Q(u)enyakuptulo < KUPU- 'hump'camelKUPswellingQL:49
Q(u)enyakuve < KUB-bowKUPbendingPE22:102
Q(u)enyakalpa < KALPA-water-vesselKORBvesselLR:362
Q(u)enyakalpa- < KALPA-to draw water, scoop out, bale outKORBcavityLR:362
Q(u)enyakolma < KOL-ringKORBringVT45:23
Q(u)enyakorma < *KOR-ringKORBringLotR
Sindarinhaudh < KHAB- 'heap up, pile up'funeral moundKUPlumpPE19:91
Sindarincarab < *KARAP-hatKORBheadgearWJ:426
Telerinhamna < KHAB- 'heap up, pile up'funeral moundKUPlumpPE19:91


total count

nat.lang.: 231
Eldarin: 46

First consonant


Second consonant

Shape distribution

Liquid distribution in KORB-type

Semantic distribution

Table of abbreviations

abbreviation reference
BenkőA magyar nyelv történeti-etimológiai szótára; Benkő, L., 1967-1976
BlackA Concise Dictionary of Akkadian; Black, J., George, A., Postgate, N., 2000
DahlТолковый словарь живого великорусского языка; Даль, В. И., 1880-1882
DMFDictionnaire du Moyen Français (1330-1500); Université de Lorraine, 2012
FrellesvigA History of the Japanese Language; Frellesvig, B., 2011
FriskGriechisches Etymologisches Wörterbuch; Frisk, H., 1960
KleinA Comprehensive Etymological Dictionary of the English Language; Klein, E., 1966
KlugeEtymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen Sprache; Kluge, F., 2002
LiddellA Greek-English Lexicon; Liddell, H. G., Scott, R., 1996
McBainAn Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language; McBain, A., 1982
Monier-WilliamsA Sanskrit-English Dictionary, Etymologically and Philologically Arranged; Monier-Williams, M., 1899
OEDOxford English Dictionary; 1989
OLDOxford Latin Dictionary; 1968
PSDThe Pennsylvania Sumerian Dictionary; Sjöberg, Å., Leichty, E., 1974-2006
SavelyevaНивхско-русский словарь; Савельева В. Н., Таксами Ч. М., 1970
SohnThe Korean Language; Sohn, H. M., 2001
VaanEtymological Dictionary of Latin and the other Italic Languages; Vaan, M. de, 2008
VasmerEtymological dictionary of the Russian language; Vasmer, M., 1950/1961
VigfussonAn Icelandic-English Dictionary; Cleasby R., Vigfusson G., 1874