Proto-Tallic had a number of postpositions which were preserved in Talmit and further enlarged by compounding. The core case postpositions were
For the nominative and accusative, there were corresponding modified forms *wa and *nujə. They were originally what one could call an ergative-like aspect marking system. In Talmit this has evolved into a noun/state system. In Kymna, however the modified postpositions came to mark affectedness.
To demonstrate this, let us take the example
(1) *Pan-ja kojəba-nu (a)khagun
child=nom apple=acc eat
’The child eats an apple (habitually)’
The accusative marked by *nu conveyed a punctual event. Marking the object by *nujə instead gave durative
(1’) *Pan-ja kojəba-*nujə (a)khagun
child=nom apple=acc.dur eat
’The child is eating an apple (durative)’
Literally: ’The apple is experiencing a prolonged influence by the child’s eating’. If the predicate was an intransitive verb, the subject was marked by *ja for punctual aspect, by *wa for durative aspect.
Now let us take an abstract object, e.g.
(2) *Pan-ja khalis-nujə pwosun
child=nom happiness=acc.dur feel
’The child is happy (durative)’
Talmit took this pattern as basis, deleted the verb and interpreted *khalis as ’state of happiness’. The posposition *nujə > nójo thus came to indicate the state a subject marked by *ja:
(2) Pan-ja halís-nójo
’The child is in a state of happiness’
Real objects which can be manipulated then always became marked by nu. The intransitive pattern
(3) *Pan-wa (a)khagun
’The child is eating (durative)’
was replaced by
(3) Pan-ja aχagendé-nójo
’The child is in a state of eating’
with a participial form of ’to eat’, and itself became habitual:
(3) Pan-wa aχágun
’The child eats (habitually)’
Kymna, on the other hand, took the pattern with real objects as basis.
(1’) *Pan-ja kojəba-nujə (a)khagun > Pan kyvonas sohum (with deletion of *ja) was reinterpreted as ’The apple is affected by the child’s eating’.
Instead of denoting aspect, *nujə came to denote affectedness, while a new aspectual marking system on the verb arose. The second pattern was completely transformed into
(2) Pan salydzumōn
’The child is happy’
with the predicative form of salydzuma ’happy’. The intransitive pattern (3) *Pan-wa (a)khagun ’The child is eating (durative)’ was reinterpeted as
(3) Panva sohum
’The child is affected by eating’.