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3.18  Nargalad, Anngalad, Carangalad, Henneth Carandûn, Henneth Malthen, Henlo Naur, Henlo n’Annun, Hennuil n’Annun

§ Nargalad, Anngalad, Carangalad, Henneth Carandûn, Henneth Malthen, Henlo Naur, Henlo n’Annun, Hennuil n’Annun (WR:164)

These are earlier names of Henneth Annûn ’Window of the Sunset’ (LotRIV, ch.5), a waterfall in Ithilien. It screened the entrance to a cave the rangers were using as a hiding-place. The cave faced west, so that whenever the sun would go down its light would be broken into many flickering beams of ever-changing colour, hence the names:

Nargalad should mean *’red light’ with nar- ’red’ from NAR1-, whence also N. narw, naru ’red’, compare Narosîr ’Redway’ and Narodûm ’Red Vale’ above (1.6), Nardol below (3.22). The second element is then most probably lenited N. calad ’light’ (KAL-).

Compared to the other forms Anngalad may conceivably signify *’light of the west’, but then it would contain annûn ’west’ (NDŪ-) shortened to ann- with the original derivation being hardly recognizable. Another theoretical possibility would be N. and, ann ’long’ (ÁNAD-, ANDA-) as the initial element, but I have no clue why the waterfall should be called *’long light’.

Carangalad is again *’red light’ with N. caran ’red’ < KARÁN- and calad ’light’.

Henneth Carandûn is probably *’window of the red west’ with henneth *’window’ according to the translation of later Henneth Annûn. Henneth is perhaps derived from KHEN-D-E- ’eye’ with the suffix -eth (cf. N. meleth ’love’ < MEL- ’love (as friend)’) denoting a noun, although such nouns usually have an abstract meaning. Carandûn must be from caran ’red’ and andûn or dûn ’west’.

Henneth Malthen is the *’golden window’ with N. malthen ’of gold’, analogical for mallen (SMAL-).

In Henlo Naur the first word seems to contain N. henn or hên ’eye’ (KHEN-D-E-) and , earlier ’a pool, lake’ (GL:54), later attested as ’fenland’ (UT:263, VT42:9-10) from LOG ’wet (and soft), soaked, swampy etc.’, while naur means ’fire’ (NAR1-). Thus we can tentatively suspect a meaning like *’wet eye/sight of fire’.

In Henlo n’Annun the word naur is exchanged by annun ’west’, for some reason with a short vowel (probably Tolkien was writing hastily and left the diacritics out). The prefixed n’ is the shortened genitive marker na, also appearing in later mír n’Arðon ’Jewel of the World’ (PM:348) and frequently in Noldorin place names like Taur-na-Faras ’Hunters’ Wold’ (SPAR-, LR:450), Taur-na-Fuin ’Forest of Night’ (LR:450), Dor-na-Fauglith ’Land of Gasping Thirst’ (PHAU-, LR:423); also in the form an in Rath a Chalardain, Ernil a Pheriannath, see 3.25.

Finally, Hennuil n’Annun contains hennuil, probably formed again with N. henn ’eye’. The element #uil may be from ULU- ’pour, flow’, presumably signifying *’pouring water, waterfall’. Although the Noldorin of The Etymologies shows another development: ulyā > N. œil, eil ’it is raining’ [7], compare the later S. ruin ’fiery, red’ < *runjā < √RUN ’red, glowing’ (PM:366), cognate to Q. runya.

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